The Radial Distribution of Dust Particles in the HL Tau Disk from ALMA and VLA Observations
Carrasco-Gonzalez, Carlos1; Sierra, Anibal1; Flock, Mario2; Zhu, Zhaohuan3; Henning, Thomas2; Chandler, Claire4; Galvan-Madrid, Roberto1; Macias, Enrique5; Anglada, Guillem6; Linz, Hendrik2; Osorio, Mayra6; Rodriguez, Luis F.1; Testi, Leonardo7; Torrelles, Jose M.8,9; Perez, Laura10; Liu, Yao11,12
Corresponding AuthorCarrasco-Gonzalez, Carlos(
AbstractUnderstanding planet formation requires one to discern how dust grows in protoplanetary disks. An important parameter to measure in disks is the maximum dust grain size present. This is usually estimated through measurements of the dust opacity at different millimeter wavelengths assuming optically thin emission and dust opacity dominated by absorption. However, Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations have shown that these assumptions might not be correct in the case of protoplanetary disks, leading to overestimation of particle sizes and to underestimation of the disk's mass. Here, we present an analysis of high-quality ALMA and Very Large Array images of the HL Tau protoplanetary disk, covering a wide range of wavelengths, from 0.8 mm to 1 cm, and with a physical resolution of similar to 7.35 au. We describe a procedure to analyze a set of millimeter images without any assumption about the optical depth of the emission, and including the effects of absorption and scattering in the dust opacity. This procedure allows us to obtain the dust temperature, the dust surface density, and the maximum particle size at each radius. In the HL Tau disk, we found that particles have already grown to a few millimeters in size. We detect differences in the dust properties between dark and bright rings, with dark rings containing low dust density and small dust particles. Different features in the HL Tau disk seem to have different origins. Planet-disk interactions can explain substructure in the external half of the disk, but the internal rings seem to be associated with the presence of snow lines of several molecules.
Indexed BySCI
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS IDWOS:000487555300002
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Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorCarrasco-Gonzalez, Carlos
Affiliation1.Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, IRyA, Mexico City, DF, Mexico
2.Max Planck Inst Astron, Heidelberg, Germany
3.Univ Nevada, Dept Phys & Astron, Las Vegas, NV 89154 USA
4.Natl Radio Astron Observ, Charlottesville, VA USA
5.Boston Univ, Dept Astron, Boston, MA 02215 USA
6.CSIC, IAA, Madrid, Spain
7.European Southern Observ, Garching, Germany
8.CSIC, Inst Ciencies Espai, Madrid, Spain
9.Inst Estudis Espacials Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
10.Univ Chile, Dept Astron, Santiago, Chile
11.Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Garching, Germany
12.Chinese Acad Sci, Purple Mt Observ, Beijing, Peoples R China
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Carrasco-Gonzalez, Carlos,Sierra, Anibal,Flock, Mario,et al. The Radial Distribution of Dust Particles in the HL Tau Disk from ALMA and VLA Observations[J]. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL,2019,883(1):21.
APA Carrasco-Gonzalez, Carlos.,Sierra, Anibal.,Flock, Mario.,Zhu, Zhaohuan.,Henning, Thomas.,...&Liu, Yao.(2019).The Radial Distribution of Dust Particles in the HL Tau Disk from ALMA and VLA Observations.ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL,883(1),21.
MLA Carrasco-Gonzalez, Carlos,et al."The Radial Distribution of Dust Particles in the HL Tau Disk from ALMA and VLA Observations".ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 883.1(2019):21.
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