PMO OpenIR
First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Data Processing and Calibration
Akiyama, Kazunori1,2,3,4; Alberdi, Antxon5; Alef, Walter6; Asada, Keiichi7; Azulay, Rebecca6,8,9; Baczko, Anne-Kathrin6; Ball, David10,11; Balokovic, Mislav4,12; Barrett, John2; Bintley, Dan13; Blackburn, Lindy4,12; Boland, Wilfred14; Bouman, Katherine L.4,12,15; Bower, Geoffrey C.16; Bremer, Michael17; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.18; Brissenden, Roger4,12; Britzen, Silke6; Broderick, Avery E.19,20,21; Broguiere, Dominique17; Bronzwaer, Thomas18; Byun, Do-Young22,23; Carlstrom, John E.24,25,26,27; Chael, Andrew4,12; Chan, Chi-kwan10,11,28; Chatterjee, Shami29; Chatterjee, Koushik30; Chen, Ming-Tang16; Chen, Yongjun31,32; Cho, Ilje22,23; Christian, Pierre10,11,12; Conway, John E.33; Cordes, James M.29; Crew, Geoffrey B.2; Cui, Yuzhu34,35; Davelaar, Jordy18; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia36,37,38; Deane, Roger39,40; Dempsey, Jessica13; Desvignes, Gregory6; Dexter, Jason41; Doeleman, Sheperd S.4,12; Eatough, Ralph P.6; Falcke, Heino18; Fish, Vincent L.2; Fomalont, Ed1; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel18; Friberg, Per13; Fromm, Christian M.37; Gomez, Jose L.5; Galison, Peter4,42,43; Gammie, Charles F.44,45; Garcia, Roberto17; Gentaz, Olivier17; Georgiev, Boris20; Goddi, Ciriaco18,46; Gold, Roman37; Gu, Minfeng31,47; Gurwell, Mark12; Hada, Kazuhiro34,35; Hecht, Michael H.2; Hesper, Ronald48; Ho, Luis C.49,50; Ho, Paul7; Honma, Mareki34,35; Huang, Chih-Wei L.7; Huang, Lei31,47; Hughes, David H.51; Ikeda, Shiro3,52,53,54; Inoue, Makoto7; Issaoun, Sara18; James, David J.4,12; Jannuzi, Buell T.10,11; Janssen, Michael18; Jeter, Britton20,21; Jiang, Wu31; Johnson, Michael D.4,12; Jorstad, Svetlana55,56; Jung, Taehyun22,23; Karami, Mansour19,20; Karuppusamy, Ramesh6; Kawashima, Tomohisa3; Keating, Garrett K.12; Kettenis, Mark57; Kim, Jae-Young6; Kim, Junhan10,11; Kim, Jongsoo22; Kino, Motoki3,58; Koay, Jun Yi7; Koch, Patrick M.7; Koyama, Shoko7; Kramer, Michael6; Kramer, Carsten17; Krichbaum, Thomas P.6; Kuo, Cheng-Yu59; Lauer, Tod R.60; Lee, Sang-Sung22; Li, Yan-Rong61; Li, Zhiyuan62,63; Lindqvist, Michael33; Liu, Kuo6; Liuzzo, Elisabetta64; Lo, Wen-Ping7,65; Lobanov, Andrei P.6; Loinard, Laurent66,67; Lonsdale, Colin2; Lu, Ru-Sen6,31; MacDonald, Nicholas R.6; Mao, Jirong68,69,70; Markoff, Sera30,71; Marrone, Daniel P.10,11; Marscher, Alan P.55; Marti-Vidal, Ivan33,72; Matsushita, Satoki7; Matthews, Lynn D.2; Medeiros, Lia10,11,73; Menten, Karl M.6; Mizuno, Yosuke37; Mizuno, Izumi13; Moran, James M.4,12; Moriyama, Kotaro2,34; Moscibrodzka, Monika18; Mueller, Cornelia6,18; Nagai, Hiroshi3,35; Nagar, Neil M.74; Nakamura, Masanori7; Narayan, Ramesh4,12; Narayanan, Gopal75; Natarajan, Iniyan40; Neri, Roberto17; Ni, Chunchong20,21; Noutsos, Aristeidis6; Okino, Hiroki34,76; Olivares, Hector37; Ortiz-Leon, Gisela N.6; Oyama, Tomoaki34; Ozel, Feryal10,11; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.4,12; Patel, Nimesh12; Pen, Ue-Li19,77,78,79; Pesce, Dominic W.4,12; Pietu, Vincent17; Plambeck, Richard80; PopStefanija, Aleksandar75; Porth, Oliver30,37; Prather, Ben44; Preciado-Lopez, Jorge A.19; Psaltis, Dimitrios10,11; Pu, Hung-Yi19; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh74; Rao, Ramprasad16; Rawlings, Mark G.13; Raymond, Alexander W.4,12; Rezzolla, Luciano37; Ripperda, Bart37; Roelofs, Freek18; Rogers, Alan2; Ros, Eduardo6; Rose, Mel10,11; Roshanineshat, Arash10,11; Rottmann, Helge6; Roy, Alan L.6; Ruszczyk, Chet2; Ryan, Benjamin R.81,82; Rygl, Kazi L. J.64; Sanchez, Salvador83; Sanchez-Arguelles, David51,84; Sasada, Mahito34,85; Savolainen, Tuomas6,87; Schloerb, F. Peter75; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich17; Shao, Lijing6,50; Shen, Zhiqiang31,32; Small, Des57; Sohn, Bong Won22,23,88; SooHoo, Jason2; Tazaki, Fumie34; Tiede, Paul19,20; Tilanus, Remo P. J.18,46,89; Titus, Michael2; Toma, Kenji90,91; Torne, Pablo6,83; Trent, Tyler10,11; Trippe, Sascha92; Tsuda, Shuichiro34; van Bemmel, Ilse57; van Langevelde, Huib Jan57,93; van Rossum, Daniel R.18; Wagner, Jan6; Wardle, John94; Weintroub, Jonathan4,12; Wex, Norbert6; Wharton, Robert6; Wielgus, Maciek4,12; Wong, George N.44; Wu, Qingwen95; Young, Andre18; Young, Ken12; Younsi, Ziri37,96; Yuan, Feng31,47,97; Yuan, Ye-Fei98; Zensus, J. Anton6; Zhao, Guangyao22; Zhao, Shan-Shan18,62; Zhu, Ziyan43; Cappallo, Roger2; Farah, Joseph R.4,12,99; Folkers, Thomas W.10,11; Meyer-Zhao, Zheng7,100; Michalik, Daniel10,11,101,102; Nadolski, Andrew45; Nishioka, Hiroaki7; Pradel, Nicolas7; Primiani, Rurik A.10,11,12,103; Souccar, Kamal75; Vertatschitsch, Laura10,11,12,103; Yamaguchi, Paul12
2019-04-10
Source PublicationASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS
ISSN2041-8205
Volume875Issue:1Pages:32
Corresponding AuthorAkiyama, Kazunori()
AbstractWe present the calibration and reduction of Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) 1.3 mm radio wavelength observations of the supermassive black hole candidate at the center of the radio galaxy M87 and the quasar 3C 279, taken during the 2017 April 5-11 observing campaign. These global very long baseline interferometric observations include for the first time the highly sensitive Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA); reaching an angular resolution of 25 mu as, with characteristic sensitivity limits of similar to 1 mJy on baselines to ALMA and similar to 10 mJy on other baselines. The observations present challenges for existing data processing tools, arising from the rapid atmospheric phase fluctuations, wide recording bandwidth, and highly heterogeneous array. In response, we developed three independent pipelines for phase calibration and fringe detection, each tailored to the specific needs of the EHT. The final data products include calibrated total intensity amplitude and phase information. They are validated through a series of quality assurance tests that show consistency across pipelines and set limits on baseline systematic errors of 2% in amplitude and 1 degrees in phase. The M87 data reveal the presence of two nulls in correlated flux density at similar to 3.4 and similar to 8.3 G lambda and temporal evolution in closure quantities, indicating intrinsic variability of compact structure on a. timescale of days, or several light-crossing times for a. few billion solar-mass black hole. These measurements provide the first opportunity to image horizon-scale structure in M87.
Keywordblack hole physics galaxies: individual (M87, 3C279) galaxies: jets techniques: high angular resolution techniques: interferometric
DOI10.3847/2041-8213/ab0c57
WOS KeywordSUPERMASSIVE BLACK-HOLE ; MILLIMETER ; EFFICIENT
Indexed BySCI
Language英语
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS IDWOS:000464210800003
PublisherIOP PUBLISHING LTD
Citation statistics
Cited Times:19[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://libir.pmo.ac.cn/handle/332002/24589
Collection中国科学院紫金山天文台
Corresponding AuthorAkiyama, Kazunori
Affiliation1.Natl Radio Astron Observ, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22903 USA
2.MIT, Haystack Observ, 99 Millstone Rd, Westford, MA 01886 USA
3.Natl Astron Observ Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588, Japan
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5.CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Glorieta Astron S-N, E-18008 Granada, Spain
6.Max Planck Inst Radioastron, Hugel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany
7.Acad Sinica, Inst Astron & Astrophys, 11F Astron Math Bldg,AS NTU 1,Sec 4,Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
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9.Univ Valencia, Observ Astron, C Catedrat Jose Beltran 2, E-46980 Valencia, Spain
10.Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, 933 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA
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17.Inst Radioastron Millimetr, 300 Rue Piscine, F-38406 St Martin Dheres, France
18.Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands
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Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Akiyama, Kazunori,Alberdi, Antxon,Alef, Walter,et al. First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Data Processing and Calibration[J]. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS,2019,875(1):32.
APA Akiyama, Kazunori.,Alberdi, Antxon.,Alef, Walter.,Asada, Keiichi.,Azulay, Rebecca.,...&Yamaguchi, Paul.(2019).First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Data Processing and Calibration.ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS,875(1),32.
MLA Akiyama, Kazunori,et al."First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Data Processing and Calibration".ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS 875.1(2019):32.
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