Submillimeter H2O and H2O+ emission in lensed ultra- and hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z similar to 2-4
Yang, C.1,2,3,4,5; Omont, A.4,5; Beelen, A.2; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E.6; Neri, R.7; Gao, Y.1; van der Werf, P.8; Weiss, A.9; Gavazzi, R.4,5; Falstad, N.10; Baker, A. J.11; Bussmann, R. S.12; Cooray, A.13; Cox, P.14; Dannerbauer, H.15; Dye, S.16; Guelin, M.7; Ivison, R.17,18; Krips, M.7; Lehnert, M.4,5; Michalowski, M. J.17; Riechers, D. A.12; Spaans, M.19; Valiante, E.20
Corresponding AuthorYang, C.(
AbstractWe report rest-frame submillimeter H2O emission line observations of 11 ultra-or hyper-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs or HyLIRGs) at z similar to 2-4 selected among the brightest lensed galaxies discovered in the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). Using the IRAM NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA), we have detected 14 new H2O emission lines. These include five 3(21)-3(12) ortho-H2O lines (E-up/k = 305 K) and nine J = 2 para-H2O lines, either 202-111 (E-up/k = 101 K) or 2(11)-2(02) (E-up/k = 137 K). The apparent luminosities of the H2O emission lines are mu LH2O similar to 6-21 x 10(8) L-circle dot (3 < mu < 15, where mu is the lens magnification factor), with velocity-integrated line fluxes ranging from 4-15 Jy km s(-1). We have also observed CO emission lines using EMIR on the IRAM 30 m telescope in seven sources (most of those have not yet had their CO emission lines observed). The velocity widths for CO and H2O lines are found to be similar, generally within 1 sigma errors in the same source. With almost comparable integrated flux densities to those of the high-J CO line (ratios range from 0.4 to 1.1), H2O is found to be among the strongest molecular emitters in high-redshift Hy/ULIRGs. We also confirm our previously found correlation between luminosity of H2O (L-H2O) and infrared (L-IR) that L-H2O similar to L-IR(1.1-1.2), with our new detections. This correlation could be explained by a dominant role of far-infrared pumping in the H2O excitation. Modelling reveals that the far-infrared radiation fields have warm dust temperature T-warm similar to 45-75 K, H2O column density per unit velocity interval N-H2O/Lambda V >= 0.3 x 10(15) cm(-2) km(-1) s and 100 mu m continuum opacity tau(100) > 1 (optically thick), indicating that H2O is likely to trace highly obscured warm dense gas. However, further observations of J >= 4 H2O lines are needed to better constrain the continuum optical depth and other physical conditions of the molecular gas and dust. We have also detected H2O + emission in three sources. A tight correlation between L-H2O and LH2O+ has been found in galaxies from low to high redshift. The velocity-integrated flux density ratio between H2O+ and H2O suggests that cosmic rays generated by strong star formation are possibly driving the H2O+ formation.
Keywordgalaxies: high-redshift galaxies: ISM infrared: galaxies submillimeter: galaxies radio lines: ISM ISM: molecules
Indexed BySCI
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS IDWOS:000388573500030
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Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorYang, C.
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Purple Mt Observ, Key Lab Radio Astron, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu, Peoples R China
2.Univ Paris Saclay, Univ Paris Sud, Inst Astrophys Spatiale, CNRS, Bat 121, F-91405 Orsay, France
3.Chinese Acad Sci, Grad Univ, 19A Yuquan Rd, Beijing 10049, Peoples R China
4.CNRS, Inst Astrophys Paris, UMR 7095, F-75014 Paris, France
5.UPMC Univ Paris 06, Inst Astrophys Paris, UMR 7095, F-75014 Paris, France
6.Univ Alcala De Henares, Dept Fis & Matemat, Campus Univ, Madrid 28871, Spain
7.Inst Radioastron Millimetr IRAM, 300 Rue Piscine, St Martin Dheres 38406, France
8.Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, POB 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands
9.Max Planck Inst Radioastron, Hgel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany
10.Chalmers, Dept Earth & Space Sci, Onsala Space Observ, S-43992 Onsala, Sweden
11.Rutgers State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, 136 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 USA
12.Cornell Univ, Dept Astron, 220 Space Sci Bldg, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA
13.Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA
14.Joint ALMA Observ, 3107 Alonso Cordova, Santiago, Chile
15.Univ Vienna, Inst Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria
16.Univ Nottingham, Sch Phys & Astron, Univ Pk, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England
17.Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland
18.European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany
19.Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, NL-9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands
20.Cardiff Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, Cardiff CF24 3AA, S Glam, Wales
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Yang, C.,Omont, A.,Beelen, A.,et al. Submillimeter H2O and H2O+ emission in lensed ultra- and hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z similar to 2-4[J]. ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,2016,595:23.
APA Yang, C..,Omont, A..,Beelen, A..,Gonzalez-Alfonso, E..,Neri, R..,...&Valiante, E..(2016).Submillimeter H2O and H2O+ emission in lensed ultra- and hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z similar to 2-4.ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,595,23.
MLA Yang, C.,et al."Submillimeter H2O and H2O+ emission in lensed ultra- and hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z similar to 2-4".ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS 595(2016):23.
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