Challenging local realism with human choices
Abellan, C.1; Acin, A.1,2; Alarcon, A.3,4; Alibart, O.5; Andersen, C. K.6; Andreoli, F.7; Beckert, A.6; Beduini, F. A.1; Bendersky, A.8,9; Bentivegna, M.7; Bierhorst, P.10; Burchardt, D.11; Cabello, A.12; Carine, J.3,4,13; Carrasco, S.1; Carvacho, G.7; Cavalcanti, D.1; Chaves, R.14; Cortes-Vega, J.3,13; Cuevas, A.7; Delgado, A.3,13; de Riedmatten, H.1,2; Eichler, C.6; Farrera, P.1; Fuenzalida, J.3,13,15; Garcia-Matos, M.1; Garthoff, R.11; Gasparinetti, S.6; Gerrits, T.10; Jouneghani, F. Ghafari17,18; Glancy, S.10; Gomez, E. S.3,13; Gonzalez, P.3,13; Guan, J-Y19,20,21,22; Handsteiner, J.15,16; Heinsoo, J.6; Heinze, G.1; Hirschmann, A.1; Jimenez, O.1; Kaiser, F.5; Knill, E.10; Knoll, L. T.23,24,25,26; Krinner, S.6; Kurpiers, P.6; Larotonda, M. A.23,24,25,26; Larsson, J-A27; Lenhard, A.1; Li, H.28,29; Li, M-H19,20,21,22; Lima, G.3,13; Liu, B.15,30; Liu, Y.19,20,21,22; Lopez Grande, I. H.23,24,25,26; Lunghi, T.5; Ma, X.31; Magana-Loaiza, O. S.10; Magnard, P.6; Magnoni, A.25,26; Marti-Prieto, M.1; Martinez, D.3,13; Mataloni, P.7; Mattar, A.1; Mazzera, M.1; Mirin, R. P.10; Mitchell, M. W.1,2; Nam, S.10; Oppliger, M.6; Pan, J-W19,20,21,22; Patel, R. B.17,18; Pryde, G. J.17,18; Rauch, D.15,16; Redeker, K.11; Rielander, D.1; Ringbauer, M.32,33; Roberson, T.32,33; Rosenfeld, W.11; Salathe, Y.6; Santodonato, L.7; Sauder, G.5; Scheidl, T.15,16; Schmiegelow, C. T.25,26; Sciarrino, F.7; Seri, A.1; Shalm, L. K.10; Shi, S-C34,35; Slussarenko, S.17,18; Stevens, M. J.10; Tanzilli, S.5; Toledo, F.3,13; Tura, J.1,36; Ursin, R.15,16; Vergyris, P.5; Verma, V. B.10; Walter, T.6; Wallraff, A.6; Wang, Z.28,29; Weinfurter, H.11,36; Weston, M. M.17,18; White, A. G.32,33; Wu, C.19,20,21,22; Xavier, G. B.3,4,27; You, L.28,29; Yuan, X.31; Zeilinger, A.15,16; Zhang, Q.19,20,21,22; Zhang, W.28,29; Zhong, J.34,35
Source PublicationNATURE

A Bell test is a randomized trial that compares experimental observations against the philosophical worldview of local realism(1), in which the properties of the physical world are independent of our observation of them and no signal travels faster than light. A Bell test requires spatially distributed entanglement, fast and high-efficiency detection and unpredictable measurement settings(2,3). Although technology can satisfy the first two of these requirements(4-7), the use of physical devices to choose settings in a Bell test involves making assumptions about the physics that one aims to test. Bell himself noted this weakness in using physical setting choices and argued that human 'free will' could be used rigorously to ensure unpredictability in Bell tests(8). Here we report a set of local-realism tests using human choices, which avoids assumptions about predictability in physics. We recruited about 100,000 human participants to play an online video game that incentivizes fast, sustained input of unpredictable selections and illustrates Bell-test methodology(9). The participants generated 97,347,490 binary choices, which were directed via a scalable web platform to 12 laboratories on five continents, where 13 experiments tested local realism using photons(5,6), single atoms(7), atomic ensembles(10) and superconducting devices(11). Over a 12-hour period on 30 November 2016, participants worldwide provided a sustained data flow of over 1,000 bits per second to the experiments, which used different human-generated data to choose each measurement setting. The observed correlations strongly contradict local realism and other realistic positions in bipartite and tripartite(12) scenarios. Project outcomes include closing the 'freedom-of-choice loophole' (the possibility that the setting choices are influenced by 'hidden variables' to correlate with the particle properties(13)), the utilization of video-game methods(14) for rapid collection of human-generated randomness, and the use of networking techniques for global participation in experimental science.

Indexed BySCI
WOS Research AreaScience & Technology - Other Topics
WOS SubjectMultidisciplinary Sciences
WOS IDWOS:000431775100044
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Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorMitchell, M. W.
Affiliation1.Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, ICFO Inst Ciencies Foton, Barcelona, Spain
2.ICREA, Barcelona, Spain
3.Univ Concepcion, Millennium Inst Res Opt, Concepcion, Chile
4.Univ Concepcion, Dept Ingn Elect, Concepcion, Chile
5.Univ Cote Azur, Inst Phys Nice INPHYNI, CNRS, UMR 7010, Nice, France
6.Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Dept Phys, Zurich, Switzerland
7.Sapienza Univ Roma, Dipartimento Fis, Rome, Italy
8.Univ Buenos Aires, Fac Ciencias Exactas & Nat, Dept Computac, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina
9.Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Inst Invest Ciencias Comunicac ICC, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina
10.NIST, Boulder, CO USA
11.Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Munich, Germany
12.Univ Seville, Dept Fis Aplicada 2, Seville, Spain
13.Univ Concepcion, Dept Fis, Concepcion, Chile
14.Univ Fed Rio Grande do Norte, Int Inst Phys, Natal, RN, Brazil
15.Austrian Acad Sci, IQOQI, Vienna, Austria
16.Univ Vienna, Fac Phys, Vienna Ctr Quantum Sci & Technol VCQ, Vienna, Austria
17.Griffith Univ, Ctr Quantum Computat & Commun Technol, Brisbane, Qld, Australia
18.Griffith Univ, Ctr Quantum Dynam, Brisbane, Qld, Australia
19.Univ Sci & Technol China, Natl Lab Phys Sci Microscale, Shanghai Branch, Shanghai, Peoples R China
20.Univ Sci & Technol China, Dept Modern Phys, Shanghai, Peoples R China
21.Univ Sci & Technol China, CAS Ctr Excellence, Shanghai Branch, Shanghai, Peoples R China
22.Univ Sci & Technol China, Synerget Innovat Ctr Quantum Informat & Quantum P, Shanghai, Peoples R China
23.CITEDEF, Dept Invest Laseres & Aplicac DEILAP, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina
24.Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina
25.Univ Buenos Aires, Fac Ciencias Exactas & Nat, Dept Fis, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina
26.Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Insituto Fis Buenos Aires IFIBA, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina
27.Linkoping Univ, Dept Elect Engn, Linkoping, Sweden
28.Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Inst Microsyst & Informat Technol, State Key Lab Funct Mat Informat, Shanghai, Peoples R China
29.CAS Ctr Excellence Superconducting Elect, Shanghai, Peoples R China
30.NUDT, Sch Comp, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China
31.Tsinghua Univ, Inst Interdisciplinary Informat Sci, Ctr Quantum Informat, Beijing, Peoples R China
32.Univ Queensland, Ctr Engn Quantum Syst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia
33.Univ Queensland, Sch Math & Phys, Brisbane, Qld, Australia
34.Chinese Acad Sci, Purple Mt Observ, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China
35.Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Radio Astron, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China
36.Max Planck Inst Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Abellan, C.,Acin, A.,Alarcon, A.,et al. Challenging local realism with human choices[J]. NATURE,2018,557(7704):212-+.
APA Abellan, C..,Acin, A..,Alarcon, A..,Alibart, O..,Andersen, C. K..,...&Zhong, J..(2018).Challenging local realism with human choices.NATURE,557(7704),212-+.
MLA Abellan, C.,et al."Challenging local realism with human choices".NATURE 557.7704(2018):212-+.
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