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A limit on the variation of the speed of light arising from quantum gravity effects
Abdo, A. A.2,3; Ackermann, M.4,5; Ajello, M.4,5; Asano, K.6,7; Atwood, W. B.8,9; Axelsson, M.11,12; Baldini, L.14; Ballet, J.15; Barbiellini, G.16,17; Baring, M. G.18; Bastieri, D.19,20; Bechtol, K.4,5; Bellazzini, R.14; Berenji, B.4,5; Bhat, P. N.21; Bissaldi, E.22; Bloom, E. D.4,5; Bonamente, E.23,24; Bonnell, J.25,26; Borgland, A. W.4,5; Bouvier, A.4,5; Bregeon, J.14; Brez, A.14; Briggs, M. S.21; Brigida, M.27,28; Bruel, P.29; Burgess, J. M.21; Burnett, T. H.30; Caliandro, G. A.27,28; Cameron, R. A.4,5; Caraveo, P. A.31; Casandjian, J. M.15; Cecchi, C.23,24; Celik, Oe25,32; Chaplin, V.21; Charles, E.4,5; Cheung, C. C.2,3,25; Chiang, J.4,5; Ciprini, S.23,24; Claus, R.4,5; Cohen-Tanugi, J.33; Cominsky, L. R.34; Connaughton, V.21; Conrad, J.12,13; Cutini, S.35; Dermer, C. D.2; de Angelis, A.36,37; de Palma, F.27,28; Digel, S. W.4,5; Dingus, B. L.38; do Couto e Silva, E.4,5; Drell, P. S.4,5; Dubois, R.4,5; Dumora, D.39,40; Farnier, C.33; Favuzzi, C.27,28; Fegan, S. J.29; Finke, J.2,3; Fishman, G.41; Focke, W. B.4,5; Foschini, L.42; Fukazawa, Y.43; Funk, S.4,5; Fusco, P.27,28; Gargano, F.28; Gasparrini, D.35; Gehrels, N.25,26; Germani, S.23,24; Gibby, L.44; Giebels, B.29; Giglietto, N.27,28; Giordano, F.27,28; Glanzman, T.4,5; Godfrey, G.4,5; Granot, J.1; Greiner, J.22; Grenier, I. A.15; Grondin, M. -H.39,40; Grove, J. E.2; Grupe, D.45; Guillemot, L.46; Guiriec, S.21; Hanabata, Y.43; Harding, A. K.25; Hayashida, M.4,5; Hays, E.25; Hoversten, E. A.45; Hughes, R. E.47; Johannesson, G.4,5; Johnson, A. S.4,5; Johnson, R. P.8,9; Johnson, W. N.2; Kamae, T.4,5; Katagiri, H.43; Kataoka, J.6,48; Kawai, N.6,49; Kerr, M.30; Kippen, R. M.38; Knoedlseder, J.50; Kocevski, D.4,5; Kouveliotou, C.41; Kuehn, F.47; Kuss, M.14; Lande, J.4,5; Latronico, L.14; Lemoine-Goumard, M.39,40; Longo, F.16,17; Loparco, F.27,28; Lott, B.39,40; Lovellette, M. N.2; Lubrano, P.23,24; Madejski, G. M.4,5; Makeev, A.2,51; Mazziotta, M. N.28; McBreen, S.22,52; McEnery, J. E.25; McGlynn, S.12,13; Meszaros, P.45; Meurer, C.12,13; Michelson, P. F.4,5; Mitthumsiri, W.4,5; Mizuno, T.43; Moiseev, A. A.26; Monte, C.27,28; Monzani, M. E.4,5; Moretti, E.16,17; Morselli, A.53; Moskalenko, I. V.4,5; Murgia, S.4,5; Nakamori, T.6; Nolan, P. L.4,5; Norris, J. P.55; Nuss, E.33; Ohno, M.56; Ohsugi, T.43; Omodei, N.14; Orlando, E.22; Ormes, J. F.55; Ozaki, M.56; Paciesas, W. S.21; Paneque, D.4,5; Panetta, J. H.4,5; Parent, D.39,40; Pelassa, V.33; Pepe, M.23,24; Pesce-Rollins, M.14; Petrosian, V.4,5; Piron, F.33; Porter, T. A.8,9; Preece, R.21; Raino, S.27,28; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.10; Rando, R.19,20; Razzano, M.14; Razzaque, S.2,3; Reimer, A.4,5,57,58; Reimer, O.4,5,57,58; Reposeur, T.39,40; Ritz, S.8,9; Rochester, L. S.4,5; Rodriguez, A. Y.59; Roth, M.30; Ryde, F.12,13; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.8,9; Sanchez, D.29; Sander, A.47; Parkinson, P. M. Saz8,9; Scargle, J. D.60; Schalk, T. L.8,9; Sgro, C.14; Siskind, E. J.61; Smith, D. A.39,40; Smith, P. D.47; Spandre, G.14; Spinelli, P.26,28; Stamatikos, M.25,47; Stecker, F. W.25; Strickman, M. S.2; Suson, D. J.62; Tajima, H.4,5; Takahashi, H.43; Takahashi, T.56; Tanaka, T.4,5; Thayer, J. B.4,5; Thayer, J. G.4,5; Thompson, D. J.25; Tibaldo, L.15,19,20; Toma, K.45; Torres, D. F.59,63; Tosti, G.23,24; Troja, E.6,25; Uchiyama, Y.4,5,56; Uehara, T.43; Usher, T. L.4,5; van der Horst, A. J.41; Vasileiou, V.25,32; Vilchez, N.50; Vitale, V.53,54; von Kienlin, A.22; Waite, A. P.4,5; Wang, P.4,5; Wilson-Hodge, C.41; Winer, B. L.47; Wood, K. S.2; Wu, X. F.45,64,65; Yamazaki, R.43; Ylinen, T.12,13,66; Ziegler, M.8,9
2009-11-19
Source PublicationNATURE
ISSN0028-0836
Volume462Issue:7271Pages:331-334
AbstractA cornerstone of Einstein's special relativity is Lorentz invariance-the postulate that all observers measure exactly the same speed of light in vacuum, independent of photon-energy. While special relativity assumes that there is no fundamental length-scale associated with such invariance, there is a fundamental scale (the Planck scale, l(Planck) approximate to 1.62 x 10(-33) cm or E(Planck) = M(Planck)c(2) approximate to 1.22 x 10(19) GeV), at which quantum effects are expected to strongly affect the nature of space-time. There is great interest in the (not yet validated) idea that Lorentz invariance might break near the Planck scale. A key test of such violation of Lorentz invariance is a possible variation of photon speed with energy(1-7). Even a tiny variation in photon speed, when accumulated over cosmological light-travel times, may be revealed by observing sharp features in gamma-ray burst (GRB) light-curves(2). Here we report the detection of emission up to similar to 31GeV from the distant and short GRB090510. We find no evidence for the violation of Lorentz invariance, and place a lower limit of 1.2E(Planck) on the scale of a linear energy dependence (or an inverse wavelength dependence), subject to reasonable assumptions about the emission (equivalently we have an upper limit of l(Planck)/1.2 on the length scale of the effect). Our results disfavour quantum-gravity theories(3,6,7) in which the quantum nature of space-time on a very small scale linearly alters the speed of light.
KeywordGamma-ray Bursts High-energy Violation Emission Photons Lorentz Tests Foam
Subject AreaScience & Technology - Other Topics
WOS HeadingsScience & Technology
DOI10.1038/nature08574
WOS KeywordGAMMA-RAY BURSTS ; HIGH-ENERGY ; VIOLATION ; EMISSION ; PHOTONS ; LORENTZ ; TESTS ; FOAM
Indexed BySCI
Language英语
WOS Research AreaScience & Technology - Other Topics
WOS SubjectMultidisciplinary Sciences
WOS IDWOS:000271899300039
Citation statistics
Cited Times:369[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://libir.pmo.ac.cn/handle/332002/1713
Collection南极天文中心
Affiliation1.Univ Hertfordshire, Ctr Astrophys Res, Hatfield AL10 9AB, Herts, England
2.USN, Res Lab, Div Space Sci, Washington, DC 20375 USA
3.Natl Acad Sci, Natl Res Council Res Associate, Washington, DC 20001 USA
4.Stanford Univ, Dept Phys, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, Stanford, CA 94305 USA
5.Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA
6.Tokyo Inst Technol, Dept Phys, Meguro, Tokyo 1528551, Japan
7.Tokyo Inst Technol, Interact Res Ctr Sci, Meguro, Tokyo 1528551, Japan
8.Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Dept Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA
9.Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Astron & Astrophys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA
10.Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Univ Calif Observ, Lick Observ, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA
11.Stockholm Univ, Dept Astron, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden
12.Royal Inst Technol KTH, Oskar Klein Ctr Cosmoparticle Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden
13.Royal Inst Technol KTH, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden
14.Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy
15.Univ Paris Diderot, CEA Saclay, Lab AIM,CEA IRFU,CNRS, Serv Astrophys, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France
16.Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy
17.Univ Trieste, Dipartmento Fis, I-34127 Trieste, Italy
18.Rice Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Houston, TX 77251 USA
19.Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, I-35131 Padua, Italy
20.Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis G Galilei, I-35131 Padua, Italy
21.Univ Alabama, CSPAR, Huntsville, AL 35899 USA
22.Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany
23.Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy
24.Univ Perugia, Dipartimento Fis, I-06123 Perugia, Italy
25.NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA
26.Univ Maryland, College Pk, MD 20742 USA
27.Univ & Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy
28.Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy
29.Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France
30.Univ Washington, Dept Phys, Seattle, WA 98195 USA
31.INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm, I-20133 Milan, Italy
32.Univ Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21250 USA
33.Univ Montpellier 2, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Phys Theor & Astroparticules, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France
34.Sonoma State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Rohnert Pk, CA 94928 USA
35.ASI, Sci Data Ctr, I-00044 Frascati, Roma, Italy
36.Univ Udine, Dipartimento Fis, I-33100 Udine, Italy
37.Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, Grp Coll Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy
38.Los Alamos Natl Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA
39.Univ Bordeaux, F-33175 Gradignan, France
40.CEN Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, UMR 5797, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France
41.NASA, George C Marshall Space Flight Ctr, Space Sci Off, VP62, Huntsville, AL 35812 USA
42.INAF Osservatorio Astron Brera, I-23807 Merate, Italy
43.Hiroshima Univ, Dept Phys Sci, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan
44.Jacobs Technol, Huntsville, AL 35806 USA
45.Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA
46.Max Planck Inst Radioastron, D-53121 Bonn, Germany
47.Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA
48.Waseda Univ, Shinjuku Ku, Tokyo 1698050, Japan
49.RIKEN, Inst Phys & Chem Res, Cosm Radiat Lab, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan
50.UPS, CNRS, Ctr Etud Spatiale Rayonnements, F-30128 Toulouse 4, France
51.George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030 USA
52.Natl Univ Ireland Univ Coll Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland
53.Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy
54.Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento Fis, I-00133 Rome, Italy
55.Univ Denver, Dept Phys & Astron, Denver, CO 80208 USA
56.JAXA, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan
57.Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria
58.Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Theoret Phys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria
59.CSIC, IEEC, Inst Ciencies Espai, Barcelona 08193, Spain
60.NASA, Ames Res Ctr, Div Space Sci, Moffett Field, CA 94035 USA
61.NYCB Real Time Comp Inc, Lattingtown, NY 11560 USA
62.Purdue Univ Calumet, Dept Chem & Phys, Hammond, IN 46323 USA
63.ICREA, Barcelona 08193, Spain
64.Chinese Acad Sci, Joint Ctr Particle Nucl Phys & Cosmol, Nanjing 210008, Peoples R China
65.Chinese Acad Sci, Purple Mt Observ, Nanjing 210008, Peoples R China
66.Univ Kalmar, Sch Pure & Appl Nat Sci, SE-39182 Kalmar, Sweden
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Abdo, A. A.,Ackermann, M.,Ajello, M.,et al. A limit on the variation of the speed of light arising from quantum gravity effects[J]. NATURE,2009,462(7271):331-334.
APA Abdo, A. A..,Ackermann, M..,Ajello, M..,Asano, K..,Atwood, W. B..,...&Ziegler, M..(2009).A limit on the variation of the speed of light arising from quantum gravity effects.NATURE,462(7271),331-334.
MLA Abdo, A. A.,et al."A limit on the variation of the speed of light arising from quantum gravity effects".NATURE 462.7271(2009):331-334.
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