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CO excitation of normal star-forming galaxies out to z=1.5 as regulated by the properties of their interstellar medium
Daddi, E.1; Dannerbauer, H.2; Liu, D.1,3,4,5; Aravena, M.6; Bournaud, F.1; Walter, F.7; Riechers, D.8; Magdis, G.9,16; Sargent, M.10; Bethermin, M.11; Carilli, C.12; Cibinel, A.10; Dickinson, M.13; Elbaz, D.1; Gao, Y.3,4; Gobat, R.1,14; Hodge, J.12; Krips, M.15
AbstractWe investigate the CO excitation of normal (near-IR selected BzK) star-forming (SF) disk galaxies at z = 1.5 using IRAM Plateau de Bure observations of the CO[2-1], CO[3-2], and CO[5-4] transitions for four galaxies, including VLA observations of CO[1-0] for three of them, with the aim of constraining the average state of H-2 gas. By exploiting previous knowledge of the velocity range, spatial extent, and size of the CO emission, we measure reliable line fluxes with a signal-to-noise ratio > 4-7 for individual transitions. While the average CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) has a subthermal excitation similar to the Milky Way (MW) up to CO[3-2], we show that the average CO[5-4] emission is four times stronger than assuming MW excitation. This demonstrates that there is an additional component of more excited, denser, and possibly warmer molecular gas. The ratio of CO[5-4] to lower-J CO emission is lower than in local (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and high-redshift starbursting submillimeter galaxies, however, and appears to be closely correlated with the average intensity of the radiation field < U > and with the star formation surface density, but not with the star formation efficiency. The luminosity of the CO[5-4] transition is found to be linearly correlated with the bolometric infrared luminosity over four orders of magnitudes. For this transition, z = 1.5 BzK galaxies follow the same linear trend as local spirals and (U)LIRGs and high-redshift star-bursting submillimeter galaxies. The CO[5-4] luminosity is thus empirically related to the dense gas and might be a more convenient way to probe it than standard high-density tracers that are much fainter than CO. We see excitation variations among our sample galaxies that can be linked to their evolutionary state and clumpiness in optical rest-frame images. In one galaxy we see spatially resolved excitation variations, where the more highly excited part of the galaxy corresponds to the location of massive SF clumps. This provides support to models that suggest that giant clumps are the main source of the high-excitation CO emission in high-redshift disk-like galaxies.
KeywordGalaxies: Evolution Galaxies: High-redshift Galaxies: Starburst Galaxies: Star Formation Submillimeter: Galaxies
Subject Area天文和天体物理
WOS HeadingsScience & Technology ; Physical Sciences
Indexed BySCI
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS IDWOS:000353579600045
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Document Type期刊论文
Affiliation1.Univ Paris Diderot, CEA Saclay, Lab AIM, CNRS,Irfu SAp, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France
2.Univ Vienna, Inst Astrophys, A-1180 Vienna, Austria
3.Chinese Acad Sci, Purple Mt Observ, Nanjing 210008, Peoples R China
4.Chinese Acad Sci, Radio Astron Lab, Nanjing 210008, Peoples R China
5.Grad Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 10049, Peoples R China
6.Univ Diego Portales, Fac Ingn, Nucleo Astron, Santiago, Chile
7.Max Planck Inst Astron, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany
8.Cornell Univ, Dept Astron, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA
9.Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Oxford OX1 3RH, England
10.Univ Sussex, Ctr Astron, Dept Phys & Astron, Brighton BN1 9QH, E Sussex, England
11.European So Observ, D-85748 Garching, Germany
12.Natl Radio Astron Observ, Socorro, NM 87801 USA
13.Natl Opt Astron Observ, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA
14.Korea Inst Adv Study, Sch Phys, Seoul 130722, South Korea
15.IRAM Inst Radio Astron Millimetr, F-38406 St Martin Dheres, France
16.Natl Observ Athens, Inst Astron Astrophys Space Applicat & Remote Sen, Athens 15236, Greece
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Daddi, E.,Dannerbauer, H.,Liu, D.,et al. CO excitation of normal star-forming galaxies out to z=1.5 as regulated by the properties of their interstellar medium[J]. ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,2015,577:A46.
APA Daddi, E..,Dannerbauer, H..,Liu, D..,Aravena, M..,Bournaud, F..,...&Krips, M..(2015).CO excitation of normal star-forming galaxies out to z=1.5 as regulated by the properties of their interstellar medium.ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,577,A46.
MLA Daddi, E.,et al."CO excitation of normal star-forming galaxies out to z=1.5 as regulated by the properties of their interstellar medium".ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS 577(2015):A46.
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