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Physical conditions of molecular gas in the Circinus galaxy Multi-J CO and C I P-3(1) -> P-3(0) observations
Zhang, Zhi-Yu1,2,3,8; Henkel, Christian2,4; Gao, Yu1; Guesten, Rolf2; Menten, Karl M.2; Papadopoulos, Padelis P.5; Zhao, Yinghe1,6; Ao, Yiping1,2,7; Kaminski, Tomasz2
AbstractWe report mapping observations of the (CO)-C-12 J = 3 -> 2, 4 -> 3, 6 -> 5, and 7 -> 6 transitions and the C I P-3(1) -> P-3(0) (C I) 492 GHz transition toward the central 40 '' x 40 '' region of the Circinus galaxy, using the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope. We also detected (CO)-C-13 J = 3 -> 2 at the central position of Circinus. These observations are to date the highest CO transitions reported in Circinus. With large velocity gradient (LVG) modeling and likelihood analysis we try to obtain density, temperature, and column density of the molecular gas in three regions: the nuclear region (D < 18 '' similar to 360 pc), the entire central 45 '' (D < 45 '' similar to 900 pc) region, and the star-forming (S-F) ring (18 '' < D < 45 ''). In the nuclear region, we can fit the CO excitation with a single excitation component, yielding an average condition of nH(2) similar to 10(3.2) cm(-3), T-kin similar to 200 K, and dv/dr similar to 3 km s(-1) pc(-1). In the entire 45 '' region, which covers both the nucleus and the S-F ring, two excitation components are needed with nH(2) similar to 10(4.2) cm(-3) and 10(3.0) cm(-3), T-kin similar to 60 K and 30 K, and MH2 similar to 2.3 x 10(7) M-circle dot and 6.6 x 10(7) M-circle dot, respectively. The gas excitation in the S-F ring can also be fitted with two LVG components, after subtracting the CO fluxes in the 18 '' nuclear region. The S-F ring region contributes 80% of the molecular mass in the 45 '' region. For the entire 45 '' region, we find a standard conversion factor of N(H-2)/I-CO (1 -> 0) = 0.37 x 10(20) cm(-2) (K km s(-1))(-1), about 1/5 of the Galactic disk value. The luminosity ratios of C I and (CO)-C-12 J = 3 -> 2 (R-CI/(CO) (3 -> 2)) in Circinus basically follow a linear trend, similar to that obtained in high-redshift galaxies. The average R-CI/(CO) (J =) (3 -> 2) in Circinus is found to be similar to 0.2, lying at an intermediate value between non-AGN nuclear regions and high-redshift galaxies.
KeywordGalaxies: Abundances Galaxies: Ism Galaxies: Individual: Circinus Galaxies: Evolution Radio Lines: Galaxies
WOS HeadingsScience & Technology ; Physical Sciences
Indexed BySCI
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS IDWOS:000341185900008
Citation statistics
Cited Times:15[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Affiliation1.Purple Mt Observ, Key Lab Radio Astron, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu, Peoples R China
2.Max Planck Inst Radioastron, D-53121 Bonn, Germany
3.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100039, Peoples R China
4.King Abdulaziz Univ, Dept Astron, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
5.Cardiff Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, Cardiff CF24 3AA, S Glam, Wales
6.CALTECH, Infrared Proc & Anal Ctr, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA
7.Natl Astron Observ Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588, Japan
8.Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Zhang, Zhi-Yu,Henkel, Christian,Gao, Yu,et al. Physical conditions of molecular gas in the Circinus galaxy Multi-J CO and C I P-3(1) -> P-3(0) observations[J]. ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,2014,568(0):0.
APA Zhang, Zhi-Yu.,Henkel, Christian.,Gao, Yu.,Guesten, Rolf.,Menten, Karl M..,...&Kaminski, Tomasz.(2014).Physical conditions of molecular gas in the Circinus galaxy Multi-J CO and C I P-3(1) -> P-3(0) observations.ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,568(0),0.
MLA Zhang, Zhi-Yu,et al."Physical conditions of molecular gas in the Circinus galaxy Multi-J CO and C I P-3(1) -> P-3(0) observations".ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS 568.0(2014):0.
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